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In this quality of interface, he represents the people and steps into a dangerous area, approaching the powers according to certain patterns, after some prayers or other typical deeds, adding sacrifices and offers. These are not put on the ground, but on a higher consecrated space, a built altar made of stones orslabs, being considered an altar that may be part of a oneroomed sanctuary or, later, of a temple with three distinct layers, possibly a ziggurat.
Thus, the priest takes before the powers the vegetal offerings, consisting in wheat, honey, flour, bread, pies, fruit and vegetables, figs, dates, as well as drinks and libations of oil, milk, wine, beer, lemonade. Nevertheless, it seems that the animal sacrifices 8 are more appreciated by the Mesopotamian gods: usually the animals are burnt entirely or partlybeing transferred into another state, that of fragrance to the gods that live in the ether.
Other offerings are brought ex-voto: perfumes, vessels, jewelries, figures and statues that are usually the representations dedicated in a procedure with magical substratum, harbored under gods protection Moscati57 9 The priest who receives the vegetables, liquids, animals and objects is a substitute, a representative and a mediator for the benefit of the represented people.
Then, it must be said that not only the priest would represent the people before the sacred powers, but he would also represent these powers before people, the representation mode being various. Firstly, after the priest came to know the will of the powers concerning a certain thing divinationhe would teach the people this will, offering his fellow-men the teachings regarding the gods, the world, the life or the rites, the rituals and the sacrifices.
Therefore, he is a teacher, a preacher 10 or at least a teller, a narrative femme forme kindle fatru burner review.
Considerations On The Sumerian Hieratic City-State
Secondly, the priest oversees his flock of worshippers in the observance of the sacred precepts, i. Hence, the priest is not only a teacher, but also a supervisor of the sacred institutions. Thirdly, the priest is a purifier: if an object, an animal, a thing or a man, transgressed from sacred to profane and became defiled, the priest is the one called to remove the curse, to reestablish the proper order of things, to purify, to restore the holiness and to attract again the blessings of the gods by appeasing them Gavrilu26; Gavrilu Fourthly, the priest was a builder of sanctuaries and sacrificial places, as well as the custodian of cult objects with administrative and economical functions, as we are to see below.
Having reached this point, we consider it helpful to direct our essay to the issue of the fable. This is what we mean concretely. Laird Harris suggests that the central element of priesthood is a sacrificial one Harris in Butler, However, this utterance needs to be taken cum grano salis, as it is absolutely necessary to pay attention to the fable, the story that frames the man and the Carl von Clausewitz would issue a philosophy of war, the so-called Just War Theory.
On the contrary, revigoration was what was sought for, the reinforcement of the tired or exhausted god.
We are not saying whether the assertion is accurate or not, but we do invite the reader to meditate on the following aspect: it is said about the prehistorical men that they had a primitive and rudimentary thinking; nevertheless, they thought that due to a guilt in illo tempore, an evil deed, men were got rid of by the gods and the divinities are to be appeased.
On the other hand, the Maya people, considered to have an evolved thinking, believed that the gods would need human blood so that their strength would not fade away.
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The question is which of the two positions is closer to the truth: the position that believes in the power of the gods and the necessity of having them appeased or the position that states the weaknesses of the gods and the necessity of revigorating them through the sacrifices?
After all, the second position shows the gods dependence on man and the mans superiority toward god if the man does not take care of the god, the poor puny god dies.
Pigs were brought as sacrifices especially to the infernal gods. Pretending that they are the voice of gods, the priests instigated to war against other people not so much to subdue them, but to affirm their gods supremacy over the other gods of other tribes. In other words, we have here the war sacralization, the concept of a holy war, specific to Jews later erem and to Muslims jihad.
The Best Dictionary English
Later, when the sacred would seem to lose part of its power, 11 object Cuceu An external observer, who does not know the fable, sees only that a man kills a poor animal.
But, being aware of the story behind the sacrifice, the observer becomes aware that reality may be understood only if it is transfigured, symboled, as Leslie A.
White would put it White, because it does not depict a man, but a sacrificer, a man situated in a constellation of sacred relations and who acts, assuming a role of the offerer.
- The Best Dictionary English
- Dc pierderea în greutate
- Это, знаешь, вполне .
- Элвин выглядел озадаченно, и Серанис сжалилась над .
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- Considerations On The Sumerian Hieratic City-State | Priest | Mesopotamia
In this context, the animal is not a poor animal, a victim, but it is ennobled, being considered an offering given to the Divinity, through which relations are made and consolidated, sacred vows are renewed, holy treaties are reconfirmed and the future is fathomed.
The fable or the myth and its narration give substance and sense to the sacrifice itself. Before the sacrifice, there should be the fable elaboration: in other words, the myth precedes the rite.
Gulian, citing from the monumental work Miti e leggende by Raffaele Pettazzoni, confirms our conviction: The reciting of the myths about the origins is integrated in the cult, for this femme forme kindle fatru burner review recitazione itself is cult and serves to the purpose for which the cult is celebrated, i.
The reciting of the creation of the world serves to the preservation of the world, the reciting of the origin of the human species serves to keep alive, that is, the community, the tribal group; the narration of the instituition of the initiatory myths and the shamanic practices serves to the ensurance of the efficiency and their duration Gulian We are now to consider some aspects of the archaic priesthood.